Saturday, May 23, 2020

An Enhanced Approach For Web Services Clustering Using...

An Enhanced Approach for Web Services Clustering using Supervised Machine Learning Techniques ABSTRACT Automatic document classification provides techniques that may improve and support web service clustering. As the number of services increases, the cost of classifying services through manual work increases. In this research, we presented an enhanced approach for service clustering that combines text mining and machine learning technology. The method only uses text description of each service so that it can classify different types of services, such as WSDL Web Service, RESTful Web Service. This approach provides better performance in terms of service discovery efficiency and effectiveness. In this approach, we identify four key features that can be extracted from WSDL documents and integrated to cluster web services into functionality-based groups. These features are WSDL content, types, referenced ontology, and web service name. our approach utilizes the supervised machine learning techniques such as Decision Trees, Deep Learning, and Naà ¯ve Bays classification methods. A compari son between the three techniques are made regarding the result accuracy and the computation cost. INTRODUCTION Web service discovery is becoming difficult task because of increasing Web services available on the Internet. As seeking for efficient web service discovery is main challenge for researchers, research in cluster analysis of web services has recently gained much attention. This is dueShow MoreRelatedQuestions On Deep Learning Technique Essay1439 Words   |  6 Pages4.3 Deep Learning Technique Machine Learning at its most basic is the practice of using algorithms to parse data, learn from it, and then make a determination or prediction about something in the world. So rather than hand-coding software routines with a specific set of instructions to accomplish a particular task, the machine is â€Å"trained† using large amounts of data and algorithms that give it the ability to learn how to perform the task [12]. Deep learning is another Machine Learning (ML) algorithmRead MoreWhat Is A Hybrid Approach For Label Classification Using Multi-Supervised Learning System1821 Words   |  8 PagesHybrid Approach for Document Classification Using Semi-supervised Learning Technique Ms. Sayali A. Dolas Department of Computer Engineering MIT Academy of Engineering, Alandi Savitribai Phule Pune University Dr. Shitalkumar A. Jain Department of Computer Engineering MIT Academy of Engineering, Alandi Savitribai Phule Pune University Abstract— Multi-label classification is a significant machine learning job where one allots a subset of candidateRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pages978–1–59158–406–3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Library administration—United States. 2. Information services— United States—Management. I. Moran, Barbara B. II. Title. Z678.S799 2007 025.1—dc22 2007007922 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright  © 2007 by Robert D. Stueart and Barbara B. Moran All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number:Read MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesbreadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very dive rse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subject of organisational theory. Whilst their writing is accessible and engaging, their approach is scholarly and serious. It is so easy for students (and indeed others who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subjectRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesManager, Cover Visual Research Permissions: Karen Sanatar Manager Central Design: Jayne Conte Cover Art: Getty Images, Inc. Cover Design: Suzanne Duda Lead Media Project Manager: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: Sharon Anderson/BookMasters, Inc. Composition: Integra Software Services Printer/Binder: Edwards Brothers Cover Printer: Coral Graphics Text Font: 10/12 Weidemann-Book Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbookRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pages This online teaching and learning environment integrates the entire digital textbook with the most effective instructor and student resources With WileyPLUS: Students achieve concept mastery in a rich, structured environment that’s available 24/7 Instructors personalize and manage their course more effectively with assessment, assignments, grade tracking, and more manage time better study smarter save money From multiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visualRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesThese changes affect a broad range of decisions, including the following: ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  How to invest in technology How to lead meaningful human resources initiatives How to maintain alliances successfully What the speed of new product or service development should be What the appropriate time horizons for investments and financial planning are How to implement productive cost reduction How to recognize when regular audits of quality compliance will not guarantee customer loyalty BusinessesRead MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words   |  860 Pageswithout either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the Web at Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: Limit

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Industrial Revolution 3 - 4013 Words

INDUSTRIAL STUDIES ASSIGNMENT NO 1 Development of Engineering since the Industrial Revolution The Main Outcomes of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution had a huge impact on society. The major effects were socially and economically. It is rather difficult to date the start of the industrial revolution but history books of today suggest the onset during the 18th century. The change from agriculture to industry was vast and it must be remembered that England was the first country to undergo this profound change. The initial effect on engineering industries arising at the start of the Industrial Revolution were due partly to the geographical location of the resources i.e. coal iron and water. The†¦show more content†¦The manufacture of bicycles, aircraft, and most predominantly the motor car increased with the utilisation of all forms of electrically powered machines. There were also increases in all forms of electrical engineering from light bulbs and radios to generating plant and machinery. Natural Resources e.g. Coal Petrochemicals The British coal industry was the major contributor to the Industrial Revolution. The industry utilised the first steam powered engines of Newcommen and many more that followed. As production grew from these applications the new railways were used to transport the vast amounts of coal being produced. In 1830 steam power could wind men and coal up and down a few hundred feet. By the 1860s there were pithead engines of 1500 hp. For 100 years from 1850 coal made up more than half of the railways freight. In 1913 one out of every 14 British workers was employed at a coalmine. In the same year there were 3,289 pits. Coal was used to power the giant iron works and the textile industry. The gasworks of the early 1800s were burning thousands of tons per year. The coal used in these gasworks was roasted and this resulted in coke as a waste product. This coke was then sold on to the ironworks. In the 1860s British engineers were still improving the s team engine. But there French and German counterparts were short of steam coal so they turned there attention to gas. AShow MoreRelatedAssignment 3: Environmental Issues and the Industrial Revolution895 Words   |  4 PagesModule 1 Assignment 3 SCI201 Ecology and Environmental Sustainability Argosy University The Industrial Revolution, which took place in the 18th to the 19th centuries, was an era during which essentially uncultivated, rural societies in America and other countries became industrial and urban. Before the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain during the late 1700s, construction was mostly done by using hand tools or basic machines. Mechanization marked a shifted to powered, special-purposeRead MoreIndustrialization Of The Industrial Revolution989 Words   |  4 PagesThe Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries CE, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine ,Read MoreEcon 515 Essay765 Words   |  4 PagesEconomics 515 AU12 Midterm 3 Review The exam will have 10, 10-point questions on it from the questions below. 1. Explain briefly how guns and steel aided in Europeans’ attempts to conquer the native population of Africa and the Americas. How did germs work in favor of European conquest against the Incas? How did germs work against the Europeans in their imperialist efforts in Africa? 2. Describe the attempt of Europeans to colonize Africa depicted in Guns, Germs, and SteelRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Of The 19th Century927 Words   |  4 PagesEurope in the nineteenth-century was rapidly evolving into a more modernized society, and many political and cultural ideas were developing during this change. The Industrial Revolution triggered an enormous increase of the standard of living throughout most of Europe and North America. The transformation from the old style of hand made production to the new factory system caused many industries to build factories. This caused many people of the working class to move to the factories in search ofRead MoreAdvantages of Industrial Revolution Essay1711 Words   |  7 PagesThe Industrial Revolution Prior to researching, I had a strong belief that the Industrial Revolution was a â€Å"dark† time period where children and poor workers would gather in a disease-ridden factory where they would work for several hours a day for little pay. Workers would cough harshly as the intense smoke filled the air. Every day, children would die from exhaustion just to fill the wallets of factory owners. But further research has convinced me that the Industrial Revolution was a benefit toRead MoreImportant Factors Leading to Industrial Revolution1606 Words   |  7 PagesNowadays, it is almost taken for granted that the industrial revolutions are the result of changing technology and the proper application of that in the industrial production. However, from my point of view, these two factors did play a vital role in stimulating industrial revolutions, but they were not the only catalyzer propelling monumental development in industry. Influentially, the improvements in organizations of politics, social patterns, commerce, finance, and transportation alsoRead MoreThe Effect of the Industrial Revolution on Slavery Essay example1146 Words   |  5 Pagesbrought in to meet the growing labor need on plantations. Although the importation of slaves continued to grow as new plantations were developed, it was the industrial revolution that would have the most profound impact on the slave industry. The purpose of this essay is to analyze the effect of slavery in the 13 colonies due to the industrial revolution. Cash Crops in the 13 Colonies One of the important early contributions of the 13 colonies was to grow produce to support the expanding economy inRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution : The World Into The Forward And Advanced World We Live1387 Words   |  6 PagesThe Industrial Revolution was vital in shaping the world into the forward and advanced world we live in now. The Industrial Revolution started in 18th century England, pushing England towards becoming one of the most industrialized nations in the world. This revolution opened up many opportunities for people in terms of work as well as the increase of product consumption, however, discrimination and oppression occurred, specifically of women. Throughout the world, especially in England, women wereRead MoreEssay on Industrial Revolution1489 Words   |  6 Pagesenvironment. Industrial revolution was so fundamental that it’s often compared with the transition from farming to stock raising, which began several thousand years before the birth of Christ. Considering the uses of natural resources, can human history be dived up into three pieces of varying length; hundreds of thousands years before â€Å"the agricultural revolution†, thousands of years between this and the Industrial revolution and the two hundreds years after the beginning of Industrial revolution. BeforeRead MoreThe Positives Of The Industrial Revolution1522 Words   |  7 PagesThe Positives of the Industrial Revolution While some might debate that Industrialization had primarily negative consequences for society because of child labor, it was essentially a positive thing for society. Industrialization’s positive effects were new laws to improve working conditions, production increased, and merchandise became cheaper. There were numerous negatives that the Industrial Revolution brought with it; nonetheless the positives out-weigh it in today’s society. Because of the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Thomas Hobbs And John Locke - 865 Words

Philosophers Thomas Hobbs and John Locke argue that having a government is the only way for a society to avoid the state of nature. However, Hobbs and Lock argue for completely different methods of government, monarchy and republic, which are both means to break out of the inherent state of nature. One such method, argued for by Hobbs, is an absolute monarchy where you subdue your liberty for security. Whether or not the absolute monarchy is tyrannical, Hobbs portrays the state of nature as â€Å"poor, nasty, brutish, and short.† For the most part the state of nature, as referred to by Hobbs, makes the population accept the tyranny of a monarchy because that is better than the state of nature. The colonies rejected Britain’s Monarchy for its lack of representation, which caused a revolution. Furthermore, after the American Revolution the articles of confederation was drafted to create order after independence was gained. The articles of confederation is extremely weak, and does not tie the newly birthed nation together cohesively. There are a plethora of problems with regards to the articles of confederation, but the most profound is the lack of power vested in the national government. Therefore, the constitution should be ratified since it maintains balance of national and state government, additionally, the constitution fosters the overall growth of the nation through its ability to collect taxes, maintain cooperation between states, and represents the populationShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Property And Property Rights900 Words   |  4 Pagesproperty and property rights is a topic which many philosophers have struggled to describe. The renowned political theorists Thomas Hobbes and John Locke hold vastly different opinions in regard to the concept of property. In 1651, Hobbes outlined his views in his book, Leviathan, where he discusses societal structure and his social contract theory. Almost forty years later, Locke published his S econd Treatise of Government, in which he described mankind’s state of nature, and natural rights. These twoRead MoreSocial Contract Theory On The Origin Of State1110 Words   |  5 Pagessophists and even the roman lawyers affirmed the idea that the consent was the basis of the state however this theory gained prominence under Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and jean Jacques Rousseau. Analysis of the theory propounded by Thomas Hobbs: The contract as conceived by Hobbes is between the people themselves who emerge from a state of nature. The theory of Hobbs as a whole is a very consistently developed once we grant his premises, his conclusion necessarily follow. In the view of Hobbes, by oneRead MoreCompare and Contrast the Views of the State of Nature Held by Hobbes and Locke.2718 Words   |  11 Pagesof Hobbes, Rousseau and Locke wrote about it, it means man when he was natural in his state of nature, uninfluenced by society, and the temptations of today. There are no rights in a state of nature, only freedom to do as one wishes. It is a term used to illustrate the theoretical condition of civilization before the states foundation in Social Contract Theories. In the dictionary it is described as â€Å"a wild primitive state untouched by civilization.† Both Hobbes and Locke discuss the state of natureRead MoreDifferences Of John Locke And Thomas Hobbes1403 Words   |  6 PagesJohn Locke and Thomas Hobb es created a state of nature that gave society two distinct representations of how mankind would act and behave when there was no government or authoritative power over them. Hobbs Leviathan illustrates mankind at its worst. He introduces a society that is overpowered by men’s desire for power and their instinct to use violence as a solution to any problem. Hobbes negative view of human nature showed a society living in constant fear and being in a â€Å"constant state of war†Read MoreEssay about John Locke ´s Flawless Government860 Words   |  4 Pagesthere are some methods of governing that come extremely close to achieving an ideal government. John Locke offers a way of governing, which I believe comes remarkably close to creating a flawless government. John Locke constructs a government that is controlled by the will of the people, which can easily be abolished if it does not adhere to protecting their fundamental rights of the people. For John Locke in order to create an almost flawless form of government we must imagine a world without governmentRead MoreThe Human Nature Aspects Of Self Interest846 Words   |  4 Pagesnot to harm others. Without government life would be solitary, nasty, brutish, and short. The type of government that Thomas Hobbes believed in was a monarchy, he thought that people should give up their freedom to a government to become stronger as a whole and not an individual. Although at that time, many people begin to believe in his ways and forms of government. John Locke was a 1700s English thinker (1632-1704) that brought forth ideas which became the key to the Enlightenment era; he wasRead MoreEssay about Classical Liberalism736 Words   |  3 Pagessince. However before CL had fully matured, it was preceded by two opposing movement: Natural rights and utilitarianism. Natural Rights ============== This doctrine, developed by Thomas Hobbs and John Locke in the 16th and 17th century is fairly famous due to Hobbs unflatteringly described state of nature which states without a rule of a sovereign body then society becomes a warà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦of every man against every man which leaves life solitary, poor, nastyRead More Order vs. Freedom in Political Systems 1963 Words   |  8 Pageswas moral and political inequality where wealth and power are given more importance and as a result are dividing citizens and creating disorder (Ellenburg, 1968, p.145). Furthermore, Locke, Like Rousseau also believed in the natural law and that natural law is illustrated by reason and tolerance (Thomas, 1998, p15). Locke was a firm believer of Christianity, According to Locke’s beliefs, all human beings ultimately belonged to God and nobody had the authority to claim natural authority on earth. HeRead MoreSocial Contract Theory On The Origin Of State3694 Words   |  15 Pagessophists and even the roman lawyers affirmed the idea that the consent was the basis of the state however this theory gained prominence under Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and jean Jacques Rousseau. 2. ANALYSIS OF THE THEORY PROPOUNDED BY THOMAS HOBBS: The contract as conceived by Hobbes is between the people themselves who emerge from a state of nature. The theory of Hobbs as a whole is a very consistently developed once we grant his premises, his conclusion necessarily follow. In the view of Hobbes, by oneRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne1037 Words   |  5 Pages Thomas Hobbs and John Locke have two very opposing viewpoints on human nature. Locke believes that human nature is innately good; Hobbs thinks that human nature knows right from wrong, but is naturally evil and that no man is entirely â€Å"good†. Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of the classic novel The Scarlet Letter, believes that every man is innately good and Hawthorne shows that everyone has a natural good side by Hester’s complex character, Chillingworth’s actions and Dimmesdale’s selfless personality

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Case Study Involving The Telecommunications Industry

Derek Hees American Military University ECON600 (Managerial Economics) 8/02/2015 Abstract Each firm that sells a product or service belongs to a certain market structure. In this paper I will analyze four of the main market structures that are involved in the world economy. Each market structure is unique to the type of product, the barriers for entering the market, and the pricing strategy. The final portion of this paper is a case study involving the telecommunications industry. Perfect Competition Perfect competition is the concept that for a given product or service, there are multiple providers that provide a similar product or service. No one company can truly control the market because there are multiple competitors creating the same product for the same price (Samuelson Marks, 2012). Price cannot be determined by a single company, the overall supply and demand for a product determines the price. In perfect competition perfectly elastic demand exists across competitors. This means that a firm cannot decide to raise prices indiscriminately because their customers will abandon them for their competitors. This also means that every competing firm in the market is a price taker. A price taker has such a small role in the supply and demand of a product that they must accept the price determined by the market. The competitors must sell the product for relatively the same price. Inversely the consumer must accept the price of the product becauseShow MoreRelatedThe Legal Treatment Of Interns1179 Words   |  5 Pageswe consume every day, specifically in the area of Telecommunications. With this growth, it is critical to train software professionals and ensure they masters the understanding, handling and servicing of these complicated systems (Santos Soares, 2013, p. 1055). Internships, if designed correctly, could be the perfect tool to accomplish this. Not only will higher level students acquire the knowledge needed to be efficient in the Telecommunication workforce, companies will also have the opportunityRead MoreThe Impact of Theft of Intellectual Property Essay780 Words   |  4 Pagesgovernment has classified to provide technological edge to protect the nation and are not supposed to be shared as it could compromise national security. †¢ Bypass expensive research and development (FBI, 2011) – by obtaining data improperly from research studies funded by US, the adversaries can save a lot of time and money using the stolen information to manufacture new products. This can directly hurt the investments of US universities and businesses that earn revenue from patents and latest technologiesRead MoreWireless Technology : Wireless Technologies1666 Words   |  7 Pagesholding it back. According to the International Energy Agency, the United States is looking to become the world’s top producer of oil by 2017, a net exporter of the fuel by 2030 and possibly self-sufficient by 2035.[2] This shows how big the oil industry has become and how much more it could grow. Over the past several years the United States has seen in explosion of exploration and new drilling operations being started in remote and geographically challenging areas where communication options areRead MoreAdams Capital Management Case Study Essay653 Words   |  3 PagesCase Study: Adams Capital Management 1. Adams espouses a â€Å"market first† analysis of opportunity by looking for discontinuities. Is this substantive or window-dressing? Do the four types of discontinuities represent applicable guidelines? Are they comprehensive, or are there other discontinuity templates that a venture investor would find useful? 2. Analyze Structured Navigation. Is this a valid measurement of progress in early stage investing? Could such a program ever be a hindranceRead MoreMarconi Plc Essay1358 Words   |  6 PagesMarconi PLC The case deals with two major transformational organisational changes that take place within a span of 5 years in Marconi PLC. The first change process was under the leadership of Lord Simpson who took over this large diversified conglomerate in 1996 when the company was in a mature phase, already in decline. The company was under performing, had a rigid structure, lacked a clear vision and the employees had become change averse and complacent. To recharge the company Lord Simpson leadRead MoreNtc Historical Background2237 Words   |  9 PagesDefence. Pursuant to Executive Order No. 94, series of 1947, the Department of Commerce and Industry was created. The Radio Control Division was again transferred from the Department of National Defense to the Department of Commerce and Industry. The reason for the transfer was that in time of peace, the function of radio regulations was a vital factor in the promotion of commerce and industry and in the economic development of the country. On January 1, 1951, by virtue of the provisionsRead MoreInfluence of Medical Marijuana on Employment in California Essay1312 Words   |  6 Pageswork places. This follows the move by several states to legalize marijuana for medical reasons. As a result, many employers are caught in the quagmire of what they need to do with employees who use drugs such as medical marijuana while at work. A study conducted in 2007 by the Americans for Safe Access revealed that there were about three hundred thousand Americans using marijuana for medical purposes (Schubert 218). In the United States, more than ten states have legalized the use of marijuanaRead MoreSBI Sms unhappy case study Essay941 Words   |  4 PagesSBI CASE STUDY: â€Å"SMS Unhappy† Markets are ever evolving and keep getting competitive day by day, and the BFSI sector is no exception. With SBI being the current market leader, the challenges are more profound for them to retain their foothold. The entry of private players like ICICI, HDFC, and UTI added to the existing challenges faced by SBI. Private players have increased competition by offering attractive schemes and convenience, in sync with customers’ demand. With a boom in the IT andRead MorePornography Essay1353 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Never before in history of telecommunications media in the United States has so much indecent (and obscene material been so easily accessible by so many minors in so many American homes with so few restrictions† (qtd in â€Å"Pornography and Child Sexual Abuse†). The problem addressed in the quote by the U.S. Department of Justice is pornography, a 10 billion dollar industry, has made its way from discreet taboo to something that is today considered acceptable and even common. With the internet beingRead MoreAre Electronics Dangerous or Cancerous?1232 Words   |  5 Pagestraffic accidents, and security purpose. On July 14, 2007, a 45 year old Australian man named John Patterson drove a tank through the streets of Sydney, destroying six cell-phone towers and an electrical substation along the way. Patterson, a telecommunications worker, reportedly had located all of the locations of the towers, which he claimed were harming his health. Protesters in England and Northern Ireland have destroyed cell towers by sawing, removing bolts, and pulling with tow trucks and ropes

Stress Free Essays

The stress analysis of a imple suspension system of car is done in this report which not only provides the reader with the stress calculations but also gives an insight of how proper stress analysis of real life problem can be done by using simple engineering formulas and techniques. Only one member of complete assembly is analyzed in ANSYS and the results were really promising. Acknowledgement:- We are thankful to Dr. We will write a custom essay sample on Stress or any similar topic only for you Order Now Khalid Rehman for teaching us so well that we were able to do the stress analysis of a real life problem. Without his teachings nothing in this report could be done. We are thankful for his time and help which he always gave during time of any confusion or problem. 1 . Introduction†¦ 2 2. Problem 33. CAD Model Statement † 34. Manual Solution 7 4. 1. Force Analysis 7 4. 2. Stress Analysis ? 10 4. 3. Failure Analysis 11 4. 4. Deformation Analysis †¦.. 12 5. ANSYS Analysts 13 5. 1. Messing . 13 5. 2. Procedure 15 5. 3. Results 21 6. Conclusion 25 1. Introduction:- The deciding step that passes any particular design is its stress analysis which gives the designer an insight that particular design would work or not, whether or not the esign is feasible for fabrication or further improvements are required. Stress analysis of any design not only includes the basic force and stress calculation in members but also the failure, deformation analysis of the complete assembly. Stress analysis can be done manually or by using any CAD tool like ANSYS etc. The results obtained from both solutions should match each other but there is always variation in the results. The variations can be due to ideal approximations in the manual calculations or any other assumed data. The report includes the stress analysis of a imple suspension system of a car; various assumptions are being made which are mentioned in respective sections of the report. The solution was done both manually and by using ANSYS and the results were really promising. The report includes force and stress analysis, failure analysis and deformation calculations. The report not only provides the reader with the stress calculations but also gives an insight of how proper stress analysis of real life problem can be done by using simple engineering formulas and techniques. Stress analysis of a simple suspension system of car. 3. CAD model:- The first step of any design is to make its CAD model which in our case is done by using CREO VI . 0. The Cad models are shown as follows: (Fig 3. 1 complete assembly) (Fig 3. 2 complete assembly) The above fgures show the cad model of whole assembly. The individual member models are also shown below: (Fig 3. 4 Hub) (Fig 3. 5 Connecting arm) (Fig 3. 6 spring) (Fig 3. Suspension arm) 5. ANSYS 5. 1. Messing: The details are provided according to ANSYS 13. 0 Mechanical APDL. Mesh size: smart size 1 5. 1. 2. Element type: PLANE182 2-D 4-Node Structural Solid 5. 1. 3. Element Description PLANE182 is used for 2-D modeling of solid structures. The element can be used as either a plane element (plane stress, plane st rain or generalized plane strain) or an axisymmetric element. It is defined by four nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. The element has plasticity, hyperelasticity, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities. It also has mixed formulation capability for simulating deformations of nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials, and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials. The geometry and node locations for this element are shown in Figure 182. 1. The element input data includes four nodes and the orthotropic material properties. The default element coordinate system is along global directions. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 182. 1. Positive pressures act into the element. 5. 1. 4. For triangular elements where the or enhanced strain formulations are pecified, degenerated shape functions and a conventional integration scheme are used. 5. 2. Procedure:- Filter GUI for analysis of structural members (Fig 5. 2. 1) Select element type plane quad 4 nodes 182 (Fig 5. 2. 2) Select Linear, Elastic and Isotropic material type (Fig 5. 2. 3) Input youngs modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio to define material in Ansys (Fig 5. 2. 4) Mesh the area using the finest mesh for accurate results (smart size 1) (Fig 5. 2. 5) Apply Pressure on line and Restrict DOF for some nodes at the center to compensate How to cite Stress, Papers Stress Free Essays 1. Introduction Nowadays, stress is nothing strange for us because increasing amounts of stress can be found in every aspect of our daily lives. A large number of people suffer a lot from significant pressure, which really disturbs their day-to-day lives. We will write a custom essay sample on Stress or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sometimes they cannot concentrate on their work at all. Worst of all, they can be easily depressed, or even suicidal. There is no doubt that stress can affect people in many aspects, especially physiologically and psychologically. This study will examine the effects of stress and will also identify the best ways to manage stress. 2. Effects of Stress . 1Physiological effects 2. 1. 1 The effects of stress on physiological symptoms According to Subbulaxmi (2002), the effects of pressure can be shown in many ways. The physiological symptoms of pressure are headache, loss of appetite and high blood pressure, which result from irregular work hours, overwork and loss of sleep. If you are under stress, your physical body will quickly respond and tend to show corresponding symptoms. For example, it is hard for you to fall asleep every night and it leads to a serious headache. Another one is that if you have loss of appetite, you may lose weight quickly. Some other impacts which are muscular tensions, back or neck pain and upset stomach can also make you uncomfortable (Mojoyinola, 2008). 2. 1. 2 The effects of stress on children’s brain growth in early childhood A report by Middlebrooks and Audage (2008) states that stress can also affect children’s brains in their early ages. It is known that not only adults have pressure, but also children in their early lives. A kind of stress called toxic stress is caused by extreme harmful experiences that may last a long period of time (Middlebrooks Audage, 2008). The first effect is that the connection of brain circuits is impaired by toxic stress in early childhood, so the brains of children will not develop very well (Middlebrooks Audage, 2008). The second effect is that brain circuits are really vulnerable because of development during early childhood. Toxic stress can destroy these circuits (Middlebrooks Audage, 2008). In particular, the last effect is that the body’s immune reaction can be suppressed by the stress hormones, and it will lead to some chronic health problems (Hawkley Cacioppo, 2004). . 2Psychological effects Stress is also a vital psychological concept which can impact on mental health. In a study by Subbulaxmi (2002) it is demonstrated that the psychological effects are depression, anxiety, tension, boredom, difficulty in making decisions and job dissatisfaction. Nowadays, more and more people feel exhausted mentally due to the increase of pressure especially the working pressure. There is no doubt that work rela ted stress influences workers’ mental health. As we know, work plays a vital role in people’s lives. When people start to work, they have to face a variety of situations such as poor relationships with other colleagues, bad working conditions and role conflicts at the workplace (Mojoyinola, 2008). These can lead to some psychological problems impacting on people’s mental health. According to Subbulaxmi (2002), in the first place, workers who get stressed seriously are much more depressed and anxious than others. They are always anxious about the work so that they cannot concentrate on anything. They probably look absent-minded when they are working. Apart from depression and anxiety, boredom results in complaining about everything. Moreover, role conflicts lead to difficulty in making decisions (Mojoyinola, 2008). Lastly, they are unsatisfied with jobs on account of poor working and salary conditions. In that case, the work efficiency is usually very low. Based on the above reasons, it is more likely for workers to blame and argue with other colleagues instead of working hard and achieving success. Obviously, job stress has a negative influence on workers’ mental health, which may lead to unhappiness and low efficiency for workers. . Physical 3. 1Diet According to Pereira (n. d. ), diet may affect people’s health and emotion, for instance when people eat too much food which is high in fat may harm the cardiovascular system which is relative to stress. Therefore, developing a good eating habit is an effective way to manage stress. Reducing the intake of caffeine, alcohol, sugar, salt and fat also can reduce depressi on. These things all may encourage adrenaline to release, and also can lead to more serious depression. In addition, having fiber every day is beneficial for health, and can reduce the effects of stress. For these reasons, a balance diet has significant benefit for people who are living in stress, and it can help stressful people to manage their stress (Pereira, n. d. ). 3. 2 Exercise In a study by Edith Cowan University Student Services Centre (n. d. ), it was claimed that doing exercise can be a healthy way to reduce stress. Pereira (n. d. ) also believes that regular exercise is an effective way to relieve the stress, because doing some sports can protect the cardiovascular system from fat. When persons feel stressed, walking a half hour every day may reduce their risks of stress. Edith Cowan University Student Services Centre (n. ) suggests that doing adequate aerobic exercise such as yoga can mitigate the risks of stress and help people to be relaxed. 4. Psychology 4. 1 Communication Spending time on establishing reliable relationships and friendships contributes to stress reduction. Meanwhile, when people feel stress, they could choose their friends or families who can be trust ed to communicate with them, and talk about things which lead to their stressful feeling. During the communication, they may find the solutions of their distress and release their emotions (Edith Cowan University Student Services Centre, n. . ). However, when people get some solutions, they need to analyse the benefits and feasibility of these solution (Cooper Cartwright, 2006). 4. 2Thinking Pereira (n. d. ) claims that if people want to avoid stress, they need to determine their ways of thinking. In addition, the experience of stress can be minimized by positive thinking methods. People who are under stress should distinguish the differences between desires and goal (Pereira, n. d. ). People also need to know which things they are able to influence, and which things they cannot control. If they are unable to change something, they should learn how to accommodate the situation (Niebuhr, as cited in Pereira, n. d. ). In addition, sometimes, self-talking which is like a voice in people’s mind can be an effective way of thinking. For example, people can question the evidence when they feel stressed, they could think about how to consider objectively. This technique which is like a self-thinking can be helpful for managing stress (Pereira, n. d. ). Edith Cowan University Student Services Centre (n. d. also suggests that if someone finds out that they cannot resist any stress, they could think about some personal situation which may cause their stress, introspect themselves, and examine their lifestyles. During this progress, they will discover the stressors and some possible solutions to relive the pressure. Similarly, Cooper Cartwright (2006) believe that recognizing the causes of stress is an important strategy to manage stress. Conclusion This research examine d the effects of stress and how to manage stress in people’s daily lives. It demonstrated how pressure can impact on people and how people can manage stress. The effects of stress, which can be divided into two parts, physiological and psychological influences, show us a vital concept. It is clear that stress can affect people a lot. There are a variety of physiological symptoms such as headache, loss of appetite, and high blood pressure, which result from obvious stress in people’s daily lives. There are also some methods, such as good eating habits, effective communication, and doing more exercise, which can manage stress very well. It is difficult to predict when stress comes to us, so the best way for us is to manage stress well. How to cite Stress, Papers Stress Free Essays

Once Upon A Time, There Was A Man Who Sacrificed For A Country By Goin Essay Example For Students

Once Upon A Time, There Was A Man Who Sacrificed For A Country By Goin Essay g to a war. Years later, when the war was over, luckily the man came home alive, but he wasnt mentally well. Time past. He started getting confused between his real life and the life during the war. Finally, he committed a murder, while thinking that he was still at war. Unfortunately, a government wants to put the man on the death row for the crime that he committed. Does this sound familiar to you? Yes, this tragedy story is not a fiction. It really took place in Oakland. The man was put on death row, and finished his life in a prison. After I heard this story, I started thinking, Is this why we have a capital punishment? I strongly disagree with capital punishment, because of the statistics that Ill state in next couple of paragraphs shows well that even though we execute the criminals and put them on death row still does not reduce the numbers of crimes. In next paragraphs, Ill even talk about how criminals were executed. It was very inhumane how people were killed, and still do not do any good to reducing numbers of crimes. First of all, lets take a look at the history of capital punishment. There are 38 states that currently authorize the death penalty. According to Justice Center Web Site, Daniel Frank was the first known execution in the United States of America. He was putted to death in 1622 in the Colony of Virginia for committing a theft. Even though, there was a capital punishment in 1622, the death penalty statistics werent collected until 1930. Also, the article states that during 1930 to 1967, 3,859 persons were executed, and 54 percent of those executed were black, 45 percent were white, and the one- percent was American Indians, Filipino, Chinese, and Japanese. In addition to that, the majority of them were men, and only 32 women were executed during those years. Even though thousands of executions took place through out the nation in different way, still the crime rate didnt go down. There were tremendous numbers of executions during 1930 to 1967 through out the states, and three out of fi ve executions were held in the southern U.S. Especially the state of Georgia had the most executions during the period, and New York as well. California was the third state who had the most executions with 292. The graph that was in the article showed a big gap between 1967 and 1977, which meant there wasnt any execution during this time period. Gary Gilmore who was convicted murdered; he was executed by firing squad, which I will talk about in next paragraph. Anyhow, during 1977 to 1998, the Bureau of Justice Statistics stated that white men were more executed than Black. For these hundreds and thousands of executions, there were five different methods of executions, which were lethal injection, electrocution, gas chamber, hanging, and firing squad. The federal government, the military and 32 states including California use lethal injection to execute prisoners, because this method is known as the most humane form of execution out of all, but the bottom line of capital punishment was to prevent people from committing a crimes. For lethal injection, they mix three different drugs and inject them into prisoners arm. Electrocution is where prisoner is strapped to an electric chair and executed. During the execution, three or more executioners push buttons, but only one is connected to the electric chair. Gas Chamber is another method of execution that is being used in California. The prisoner is sealed in a chamber and either potassium cyanide or sodium cyanide is dropped into a pan of hydrochloric acid, and it starts make prisoners unconscious and choke to death. Hanging and firing squad is well known method, because many movies have shown people these two methods. Special thing about firing squad is that some shooters fire blanks. Also this firing squad was used for the first capital punishment in the United States. .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d , .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .postImageUrl , .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d , .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d:hover , .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d:visited , .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d:active { border:0!important; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d:active , .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3b455d584bc7e0291ef9a8e082fdf65d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Evolution - Fact Or Fiction? EssayAll these numbers and methods of capital punishment were mainly to reduce the numbers of crimes. The idea of capital punishment is to scare people so

Friday, May 1, 2020

Group Behaviour in Organisation

Question: Write an essay on Group Behaviour in Organisation? Answer: Abstract The study indicates the necessity of maintaining the group behaviour in enhancing the organisational productivity. The study is discussing the group behaviour in the federal prison. It is to be noted that the correctional officer and the staffs have to maintain their responsibilities towards the inmates and simultaneously tackle their aggressive behaviour. The impact of the role conflict, communicational problems, intergroup conflicts, and the lack of cohesiveness are affecting the group productivity in a significant manner. The increasing level of the violence against treating the inmates has become much recognisable in recent years. Therefore, the authority of the federal bureau needs to take the initiatives in providing both the correctional officers and the staffs the proper training session to avoid such dangerous violence against the inmates. The study would thus provide the suitable recommendations for the enhancements of the group productivity in Federal Prison. Introduction In the period of 21st century, the business management used to train the employees and other working staffs in groups (Losh, 2015). It is notified that the organisational success was not supposed to be depended on the working skills or effective knowledge; rather depended on the capabilities of working within a group (Van der Laan Eichelsheim, 2013). The study reflects the maintenance of the group behaviour of United States Penitentiary, Allenwood, which is considered as the group in Federal Prison. The United States Penitentiary is a medium-security prison operated by the Federal bureau of Prison (, 2016). The study will be presenting the idea of the role conflicts within groups along with the possible communicational problems. The study will also justify the lack of cohesiveness in concentrating on the diversified members. The focus will be featuring the excessive intergroup conflict than may create the impacts on the group behaviour. Based on these aspects, the entire stud y will be discussed. Discussion of the Topic The topic indicates the group behaviour in the federal prison and the effectiveness in determining the enhancements of the productivity. It is to be indicated that the modernised world, the emergence of the group activities are significantly contributing the skilfulness in achieving the organisational goals (Clark et al. 2014). However, in the federal prison, the group is formed with the correctional officers, guards, and other staffs. The diversified cultural background sometimes is the reason behind the conflicts foreseen in the internal scenario (Hurwitz et al. 2015). The lack of cohesiveness is also one of the most significant reasons behind the group conflicts. The ineffective attributes of maintaining the responsibilities can affect the group productivity (Loucks, 2013). Therefore, the study will be evaluating the necessity of maintaining the group behaviour to determine the achievement of the organisational objectives. The proper behaviour is also effective enough for the corr ectional purposes of the prisoners. Role Conflicts within Groups It is to be noted that both the formal and informal goals usually depend on the role performance and the role expectations of the personnel in federal prison (Skarbek, 2012). Furthermore, it can be stated that the behaviour even affects the positions occupied by the personnel in an organisation. The custody prisons set their goal to provide the proper training to the community for facilitating the security and control over the inmates. The correctional officer has to maintain the security and orders since the custody ideology is mainly based on the containment of the inmates (Amato, 2012). The orders and the security are associated in the specified group or within a delimited area. The officers in the groups are forced to maintain order, enforce rules, and retain custody. The maintenance of the responsibilities determines the procedures and systematic structure of the federal prison. Every prison includes the modicum of custody, which is associated with the correctional facilities. T herefore, in some of the cases, the dual emphasis in the custody often gives rise to some recognisable conflicts. According to Appelbaum et al. (2014), the attempt of fulfilling the conflicting role by an individual can be the reason behind the role conflict in the federal prison. On the contrary, it can be stated that the existence of both the treatment of the goals and custody is considered as the potential source of role conflicts among the staffs in American Prison. The staffs associated in the custody works need to overlook the violations taking place within the organisation and need to get the control over the inmates. In considering such aspect Duffee commented, In the anomic position of working for a goal, which is negatively defined as the absence of punishment and is manifested by no acceptably measured result (, 2016). The staffs are mainly appointed to maintain the lenient rules applied in the group in federal prison. Therefore, the emergence of the role c onflict is much foreseen and can create the recognisable impacts as well. Communication Problems among group members The staffs or the guards in the federal prison usually confront the potential violent situations in the inmates of the federal prisons (Stewart et al. 2015). It is to be noted that the staffs have to maintain the main responsibilities of managing the inmates even at their worst behaviours towards them. The maintenance of such duty includes the counselling the inmates and escorting them throughout the prison by keeping the concentration on the policies and regulations applied in the prison. The correctional officers are even inspecting the inmates living areas to revive the illegal items (Richmond, 2014). Hence, these officers have to face the different situations with proper cautions. When the correctional officer will notice the aggressive behaviour of the inmates, they need to respond the prisoners back in accordance with the situations. The sign of the trigger and the body language are used for making the prisoners aware of their aggressiveness or the dangerous behaviour. The beha vioural traits are the signs of the extreme attributes of the prisoners that the correctional officers or the staffs have to deal in managing the inmates (Koopmans Schaeffer, 2015). It is to be noted that during such behaviour, the staffs are sometimes feeling uncomfortable and they usually take such aggressiveness as threats. If any of the inmates recognise the situation, it is required to stay calm before the situation escalates. In such cases, it is necessary to control such situations by staying calm. The maintenance of such situations is significant enough in avoiding the miscommunications. Lack of cohesiveness in groups with diverse members Harris (2014) pointed out that the term cohesiveness refers the example of the complex forces, which determines the group identity more specifically. The maintenance of the cohesiveness among the groups is considered as one of the most significant ways to enhance the potentiality of the group behaviour. In the federal prison, the members are usually from the different cultural background and this signifies the association of the diversified nature in the group (Ngo et al. 2013). In the federal prison, both the guards and the correctional officers belong to the diversified cultural aspects. In fact, they have to deal with the aggressiveness of the prisoners. Hence, the presence of the cohesiveness is necessary. The alignment between the group members includes the prerequisites that contributes the cohesions and brings the sense belonging and common identity (Losh, 2015). The existence of the ethnic inequalities and the social exclusion are eliminating the cohesiveness from the group b onding (Glisson et al. 2012). In fact, due to lack of cohesiveness in the group, the emergence of the racist victimizations and discriminations is also prominently seen. It is to be noted that the lack of cohesiveness is considered as the driving force for the local, regional, class-based, and nationality based discriminations more specifically (Hurwitz et al. 2015). In keeping the focus on such issues, the group members have to face the difficulties in understanding and identify the dynamics in the prison social system (Koopmans Schaeffer, 2015). The problematic attributes foreseen in such atmosphere can be the reason behind the decreasing level of the productivity. Excessive Intergroup Conflict As referred by Roth Skarbek (2014), the intergroup conflicts determine the collective disagreement or the incompatibility between two or more divisions, subsystems, and departments. The intergroup conflicts create the recognisable linking between the task, information, and resources. It is to be indicated that despite the approval received from Eighth Amendment in 1971, the information regarding the excessive violence in American prisons is much specified. The act eliminated the cruel and unusual punishment provided to the prisoners (Van der Laan Eichelsheim, 2013). However, the breaching of such laws has been much prominent in the federal prisons of United States. The inmates along with the federal authorities have been complaining regarding such cruel punishments, which have been widespread in a very significant manner (Ngo et al. 2013). In the year of 2005, the Commissions on Safety and Abuse in Prisons informed about the allegations of mistreating almost 16,000 prisoners. The m isconduct indicates both the physical and sexual assaults, which brought to the notice of Inspectors (Hurwitz et al. 2015). It has been indicated that the excessive level of violence is not only foreseen in the state prison, the country jails even have to face such situations. The punishments cause the result of the physical sufferings faced by the inmates in the prison. In the year of 2007, one of the inmates was beaten and handcuffed by a group of guards. Some of the inmates even get the mental disorders due to such ill treatment. Such of this intergroup conflict is affecting the group productivity in a very significant manner. Recommendations The federal inmates usually face the emotional, physical, and psychological prison environment, which is usually defining the attitudes and beliefs held by the criminal justice system (Clark et al. 2014). The internal conflict foreseen among the group members affects the productivity in a very prominent manner. While the group productivity facilitates the determination of achieving the organisational objectives, the internal conflicts affect the situations more significantly. The beliefs and attitudes in prior to provide the punishments to the inmates can sometimes be inconsistence and complex. The group conflicts even create impact on the psychological aspects of the members. The guards and the correctional officers have to deal with the aggressive behaviours of the inmates, which may create some dangerous situations. Hence, if the staffs are mentally being instable of handling such situations, it would affect them in a very significant manner. The lack of cohesiveness is also affecting the group productivity much prominently. The maintenance of the group cohesiveness determines the identifications of the group. It has been seen the excessive internal violence is affecting the reputation of the federal prison and the federal authority has to question the staffs about such negligence. The role conflict among the correctional officers is thus concentrating on the empirical investigations. The positions of the staffs in the security prison needs to be skilled in communicational aspects. The presence of the communicational transparency is effective enough in adding the value to the group productivity. The increasing level of the violence in treating the inmates is affecting the internal scenario more specifically. Hence, it is important to initiate the proper training session for the group members. If the group members are properly trained to treat the inmates in their aggressiveness, it would be beneficial for the group produc tivity. The group behaviour is much facilitated by the training session provided by the practitioners or the higher authority in the federal prison. The staffs are trained to respond in accordance to the aggressive attitude of the prisoners. The correctional officers along with the other staffs have to perform their responsibilities in treating the inmates. Therefore, the group training is essential for maintaining the efficiency in the group behaviour of the federal prison. Conclusion The study reflects the significance of group behaviour in the federal prison. It is to be indicated that the federal prison includes the correctional officers along with the other staffs who usually deal with the inmates. Sometimes the aggressiveness of the inmates creates the effective scenario that leads the correctional officers in acquiring the aggressive behaviour. In such situations, it is important for the correctional officers and the staffs to control their anger by taking deep breaths and possible practices. In fact, they need to avoid such aggressive behaviour to tackle the situation from being dangerous. The role of conflict and the communicational problem among the members are also much significant in considering the facilitations in the group behaviour. The excessive intergroup conflicts are thus affecting the group behaviour more significantly. The practitioners or the authority may even provide the correctional officers and the other staffs the lesson about treating t he inmates. The recognition of their behaviour is important and they need to respond them back accordingly. The decreasing level of the violence on the inmates in the prison is essential. Hence, the entire study concludes with the justified ways of adding the efficiency in the group behaviour in federal prison. References Amato, F. J. (2012). The relationship of violence to gender role conflict and conformity to masculine norms in a forensic sample.The Journal of Men's Studies,20(3), 187-208. Appelbaum, K. L., Hickey, J. M., Packer, I. (2014). The role of correctional officers in multidisciplinary mental health care in prisons.Psychiatric Services. Clark, B. C., Thorne, C. B., Hendricks, P. S., Sharp, C., Clark, S. K., Cropsey, K. L. (2014). Individuals in the criminal justice system show differences in cooperative behaviour: Implications from cooperative games.Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. Glisson, C. A., Dulmus, C. N., Sowers, K. M. (2012).Social work practice with groups, communities, and organizations: Evidence-based assessments and interventions. John Wiley Sons. Harris, M. S. (2014). Group Therapy at a Prison for Women: A Therapist's Perspective.Smith College Studies in Social Work,84(1), 40-54. Hurwitz, J., Peffley, M., Mondak, J. (2015). Linked Fate and Outgroup Perceptions Blacks, Latinos, and the US Criminal Justice System.Political Research Quarterly,. Koopmans, R., Schaeffer, M. (2015). Relational Diversity and Neighbourhood Cohesion. Unpacking Variety, Balance and In-Group Size.Social Science Research. Losh, S. (2015). Group Behavior in Organization, pp.22-135. Loucks, N. (2013). Bullying behaviour among women in prison.Bullying among Prisoners, 27. Ngo, H. V., Rossiter, M. J., Stewart, C. (2013). Understanding risk and protective factors associated with criminal involvement in a multicultural society.International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies,4(1), 54-71. Richmond, K. M. (2014). The impact of federal prison industries employment on the recidivism outcomes of female inmates.Justice Quarterly,31(4), 719-745. Roth, M. G., Skarbek, D. (2014). Prison Gangs and the Community Responsibility System.Review of Behavioral Economics,1(3), 223-243. Skarbek, D. (2012). Prison gangs, norms, and organizations.Journal of Economic Behavior Organization,82(1), 96-109. Stewart, L. A., Wilton, G., Sapers, J. (2015). Offenders with Cognitive Deficits in a Canadian Prison Population: Prevalence, Profile, and Outcomes.International journal of law and psychiatry. Van der Laan, A., Eichelsheim, V. (2013). Juvenile adaptation to imprisonment: Feelings of safety, autonomy and well-being, and behaviour in prison.European Journal of Criminology,10(4), 424-443. Websites, (2016). USP Allenwood. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Jan. 2016]., (2016). Role conflict in correctional institutions [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Jan. 2016].